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Medicare For Dummies | 2023 Eligibility, Enrollment & Costs

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As most people approach retirement age, they start to think about what their health care coverage will look like. Most of them know that they will be eligible for Medicare upon turning 65, but many people have no clue about how Medicare works. Medicare provides health insurance mostly to retirees, although Medicare coverage can be confusing to some people. Instead of trying to figure it all out on your own, just keep reading this article. We will tell you everything that you need to know about Medicare in 2023. This includes eligibility criteria, the enrollment process, and how much it will cost you. Continue reading to learn all the details!

What Is Medicare?

Medicare is a health insurance program administered by the Federal government that aims to reduce health care costs for its beneficiaries. Medicare is run by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMC). It is closely related to the Social Security Administration, as most Medicare recipients also receive Social Security benefits. Medicare is funded through payroll taxes that are included as part of the FICA taxes. These taxes are placed into two trust funds maintained by the U.S. Treasury.

In addition to payroll taxes, Medicare also receives funding through premium payments. Medicare Part A sometimes requires the payment of a premium, and Medicare Part B always requires a monthly premium. Even though Medicare receives funding from these various sources, it is still in danger of becoming insolvent. Several potential solutions have been discussed, such as raising the Medicare tax or pushing back the eligibility age. As of now, none of the potential changes have taken effect.

The Four Parts Of Medicare

One reason that Medicare is so confusing is because of the different parts. There are four different parts of Medicare, and each part has different coverage details and costs. Some parts are mandatory, while others are optional. Understanding each of these parts helps tremendously to understand the overall Medicare program as a whole. Here are the different parts and the details of each.


  • Medicare Part A

Medicare Part A is also called hospital insurance. It covers services like inpatient care in a hospital, care in a skilled nursing facility, hospice care, and home health care. Generally, Medicare does not cover stays in assisted living facilities. Some beneficiaries can receive Medicare Part A at no cost. If you have at least 40 work credits, then you will be eligible for premium-free part A coverage. You should enroll in the coverage upon turning 65. Even if you do not have enough work credits, you can still choose to enroll in Part A coverage by paying a monthly premium.


  • Medicare Part B

Medicare Part B is more like traditional health insurance. Together, Parts A and B make up what is called Original Medicare. Part B provides coverage for medically necessary services and preventive services. This includes doctor visits, lab tests, outpatient care, outpatient services, mental health, and ambulance services. Part B also provides coverage for many vaccines, such as the flu vaccine, pneumonia vaccine, and hepatitis B vaccine. However, Part B does not cover the shingles vaccine.

In addition to the items mentioned above, Part B also covers durable medical equipment. This could include wheelchairs, hospital beds, oxygen machines, glucose monitors, and other equipment. Unlike Part A, Part B coverage is optional. You may choose to decline this coverage because there is always a Part B premium. A premium applies to this coverage, even if you have sufficient work credits to qualify for premium-free Part A coverage. The amount that you pay for Part B depends on your income. The higher your income, the more you will have to pay for Part B coverage.


  • Medicare Part C

This is where things tend to get confusing for most people. Medicare Part C is really just a combination of all the parts of Medicare into a single plan. These plans are also called Medicare Advantage plans. They can combine Part A, Part B, and Part D coverage into a single plan that allows you to manage all your coverage easily. These Medicare Advantage plans are managed and administered by private insurance companies. These companies contract with Medicare to provide coverage, and the coverage provided by these plans must be at least the same level of coverage provided by Original Medicare.

Medicare Part C plans provide several benefits. As previously mentioned, they allow you to manage all your coverage and benefits in one place under a single plan. Next, most of these plans provide additional benefits that are not included with Original Medicare. For example, most plans include some level of dental and vision coverage as well as prescription drug coverage. Since these Advantage plans are managed by private companies, they get to set their own rules about cost and coverage. Premiums, copays, and deductibles vary by plan, so you would need to check your plan details to determine the specifics of your plan.

You should also know that not all Medicare Advantage plans are offered everywhere. The plans available to you will vary depending on where you live. Medicare beneficiaries should check the available options in their area to select a plan that meets their needs. A licensed insurance agent can usually help you assess and select the best Medicare option for your situation as well.


  • Medicare Part D

Medicare Part D is simply a prescription drug plan. This coverage is not included in Original Medicare, so do not expect that Medicare will pay for your regular prescriptions at the pharmacy. While Medicare pays for the doctor visit or medical costs associated with a procedure, it does not cover prescription drugs — except in limited circumstances. You will need to enroll in a Part D plan through a private insurance company to obtain prescription medication coverage. While you can purchase a Part D insurance plan separately, most people choose to select one as part of a Medicare Advantage plan. The specifics of each plan, such as the coverage options, premium amount, copay, and deductible, vary from plan to plan.


  • Medigap

This is the unofficial fifth part of Medicare. You might also hear Medigap referred to as Medicare Supplement insurance. These plans help offset the cost of out-of-pocket expenses that are not covered by Medicare. For most services, Medicare covers 80% of the cost after you have met your deductible. A Medigap plan can help pay for the 20% not covered by Medicare. These plans are also managed by private companies, and the details of each vary. The biggest thing to know about these plans is that they will help you with out-of-pocket costs associated with Medicare.


Eligibility For Medicare

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Many people wonder about the eligibility criteria for Medicare. Here are the basics. You should be at least 65 years old, and you must have been a U.S. citizen or legal permanent resident for at least five years. As long as you meet these two criteria, you can enroll in Medicare. If you have enough work credits, you will receive Part A coverage at no charge. Otherwise, you will need to pay a monthly premium for coverage. There are also a couple of other ways to qualify for Medicare.

Younger individuals who are receiving Social Security disability benefits can also be eligible for Medicare. If you have been receiving disability benefits for 24 months, then you will be automatically enrolled in Medicare coverage. Lastly, younger individuals who have been diagnosed with ALS or End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) are eligible for Medicare. There is no waiting period for these individuals, and they can sign up as soon as the diagnosis for one of these diseases occurs.

It is worth noting that legislation has recently been introduced that could lower the Medicare eligibility age to 60. Democrats in the House of Representatives are attempting to get the bill passed, but there are still some questions surrounding a few specifics. It is unclear how Medigap coverage would work in the 60 to 64 age group, and there is also no answer on whether Medicare would become mandatory at age 60. This legislation is likely to have a difficult time passing the Senate, though. There is a lot of worry over the solvency of the program, and lowering the eligibility age could cause the program to run out of money even sooner.

Medicare Enrollment Process

Navigating the Medicare maze can be difficult, especially when it comes time for enrollment. How do you get signed up for coverage? We will start with the easiest way and go from there. If you are already receiving Social Security retirement benefits when you turn 65, you will be automatically enrolled in Medicare coverage. Similarly, if you receive Social Security disability benefits, you will be automatically enrolled in Medicare after your 24th month of disability.

However, if you do not fit into one of the two categories above, then you will need to apply for Medicare coverage. You can sign up for Medicare benefits online through This is the quickest and easiest way to apply for coverage. You can also apply over the phone by calling the Medicare phone number at 1-800-772-1213. There are also a few things you need to know about the timing of your enrollment. You should sign up for Medicare as soon as you become eligible to avoid any late enrollment penalties. This period is called your initial enrollment period. It begins three months before your 65th birthday, runs through your birthday month, and ends three months after your 65th birthday. You should sign up for both Part A and Part B coverage during this time.

If you miss your initial enrollment period, you might qualify for a special enrollment period. This usually applies to individuals who are still working and covered under a group health plan through their employer. If you fall into this group, you can still enroll in Part B coverage at the end of your employment without a late enrollment penalty. Finally, Medicare has an open enrollment period each year from January 1 through March 31. If you sign up during this period, your coverage will begin on July 1. However, you might be required to pay a late enrollment penalty in some cases.

The same enrollment periods above apply to most Medicare Advantage plans as well. However, to sign up for those plans, you should contact the insurance company directly. Since the providers of these plans are private companies, they set their own rules regarding coinsurance amounts, deductibles, premiums, and other items. They do generally follow the same enrollment period schedule, though. You can always talk to a licensed insurance agent or other Medicare expert to assist you in enrollment in one of these plans.

Medicare Costs

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So, how much does Medicare cost? The answer depends on a few factors and variables. Here is what you need to know. First, let’s talk about monthly premiums. If you have enough work credits, then you will not pay a premium for Part A coverage. However, without enough work credits, you can pay up to $506 per month, depending on how many work credits you have. The average Part B premium is $189 per month, although that amount can increase if your income is higher. Part C and Part D premiums vary according to the specifics of each plan.

In addition to premiums, there are also other costs associated with Medicare. For 2023, the Part A deductible is $1,600 per benefit period. The Part B deductible is $226. Once you have met your Part B deductible, you typically only need to pay 20% of the Medicare-approved amount for doctor services. Part C and Part D plans have varying deductibles and copay amounts since each insurance company can set its own rules about these plans.

The Bottom Line

Medicare can often be confusing, but it provides many protections for retirees regarding health care. Instead of purchasing the Medicare For Dummies book by Patricia Barry, simply read through the details in this article. We have provided you with all the details that you need to know about Medicare in 2023. Most people first become eligible for Medicare when they turn 65, and most people also receive premium-free Part A coverage. Failure to enroll in Part B coverage on time can result in a late enrollment penalty. If you choose to enroll in Part C or Part D coverage, remember that those plans are administered by private insurance companies. Those companies get to set their own rules about premiums, copays, and deductibles. Those plans can, however, get you some additional benefits like dental and vision coverage.


Frequently Asked Questions


How does Medicare work in simple terms?

In simple terms, Medicare works like this. It is a health care program that is run by the Federal government that aims to reduce health care costs for its beneficiaries. Most people on Medicare receive Social Security benefits. Medicare is broken into four parts — Part A, Part B, Part C, and Part D. Part A provides coverage for hospital stays and inpatient services. Part B provides coverage for doctor’s visits and outpatient services. Part C is a combination of Parts A and B into a single plan, and Part D covers prescription drugs. If you have worked long enough in the past, then you will not be required to pay a premium for Part A coverage. Part B always requires a premium. Since Parts C and D are run by private insurance companies, they get to set their own rules for those plans.


What is the best resource to understand Medicare?

One of the best resources to understand Medicare is their website at You will find many great resources there, including coverage details, cost information, enrollment information, and much more. In addition, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services also publish a lot of useful information when it comes to Medicare. Finally, you can talk to a local licensed insurance agent. They should be able to assist you with understanding Medicare coverage, and they can also help get you signed up for a plan that best fits your needs.


What is the difference between Medicare Advantage Plans and Medicare Supplement Plans?

Medicare Advantage plans allow you to combine all your Medicare coverage into a single insurance plan. This includes Part A and Part B coverage. In addition, these plans typically include Part D coverage and additional benefits like vision or dental coverage. Medicare Supplement plans, on the other hand, help pay for out-of-pocket expenses not covered by Medicare. These are also called Medigap plans. Since you are generally responsible for paying 20% of the cost of medical services using Medicare, these plans can help cover those costs.


What is the most common misconception about Medicare?

One of the most common misconceptions about Medicare is that it is completely free. While many people receive Part A coverage at no charge, there is always a premium required for Part B coverage. Similarly, Medicare Advantage plans almost always include a premium as well.

Another big misconception is that you can enroll in Medicare at any time. That is not the case. You can only enroll in Medicare during your initial enrollment period, a special enrollment period, or the general enrollment period. Outside of these times, you cannot enroll in Medicare coverage. This is why it is so important to understand these periods and get signed up for coverage when you become eligible.